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This silicium semiconductor diode named Z diode is used in
reverse-biasing. It works like a standard diode in conducting direction
but becomes low resistance itself when the mentioned working voltage
(the Zener voltage) is reached. From this voltage on the current
increases abruptly. This effect named Zener effect is caused by an
electrical field that frees electrons from there crystal bindings.
The very large conductance of the diode after this effect makes rationing of electricity neccessary or the Z diode will be destroyed. The maximum current to flow through the Z diode can be drawn by a series resitant RV (Drawing 1) which can be calculated as shown on the left side.
Formula 2 shows the calculation of the minimum current Iz min of the diode.
Formula 3 shows the calculation of the maximum current Iz max of the diode.
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